The island of Samos is located on the eastern edge of central Aegean. Its shape is elongated with maximum axis E-W, a surface of 476 km2 and a coastline of 120 km.

The Kampos plain, which forms our study area, is located at the south-western side of the island and consists of alluvium deposits, and falls in a larger basin consisting mainly of marble (16 %), schist (31 %) and marly limestone (52 %). The highest elevation of the Kampos plain is approx. 224 m above mean sea level (a.s.l).


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Ireon 37.672068, 26.885433 Ireon, Samos Well at the archeological site (Well 5)

Alluvium deposits cover the southern part and form a plain with an elevation in the range 0-20 m a.s.l. The alluvium has an upward-fining thickness (higher thickness towards the coast). Groundwater from the study area serves both irrigation and domestic water needs. The latter is highly increased during the summer period due to touristic activities developed in the area.

Aquifer extension 86.7 km²
Total exploitation 3.4 Mm³/y or about 107 L/s
Water use
  • irrigation
  • public (airport) and domestic (potable) water needs
Major challenges
  • salinization of groundwater (seawater intrusion)
  • pollution from agricultural and domestic sources
Land use
  • 8 % urban area,
  • 80 % (agriculture, olive trees, fruit trees, vegetables)
  • 12 % wetlands and forest
Cities supplied
  • Ireon
  • surrounding municipalities

According to the latest water management plan, the groundwater body has been defined as bad quantitative and qualitative status, which mostly depends on overexploitation and the subsequent seawater intrusion. Both agricultural and touristic activities are of vital importance for the socioeconomic stability and development of the study area. Since both activities are directly related to water availability, the development of a framework for sustainable water resources management is crucial.

borehole_id name national_code medsal_code projection utm_x utm_y longitude latitude altitude date level notes
1023 Heraion well 23 GH201277302 W1023 UTM 3449442 4890322 18.234 23.1889 5 2019-12-02 15:40:00 0.05 info